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Layers of soil were created from deposits of sand, loess and gravel, and generally have a thickness of 16 m (52 ft)–18 m (59 ft).
Over this base, decaying vegetation gave rise to podsolic soils, which led to favorable conditions for crops (cereals, vegetables, fruit trees).
Then the Habsburgs besieged it, leading the fleeing Transylvanian armies to set it on fire.
The Austrian general Lazar Schwendi ordered the citadel to be rebuilt after the plans of Italian architect Ottavio Baldigara; using an Italian system of fortifications, the new structure would be pentagonal with five towers.
Soon after Stephen I of Hungary created the Kingdom of Hungary in the year 1000, Teutonic (German) colonists were settled at the periphery of city (Villa Zotmar), brought in by Stephen's wife, the Bavarian princess Gisela of Hungary.
Later, they were joined by more German colonists from beyond the Someș River, in Mintiu.
Later, these lands formed part of Menumorut's holdings; one of the important defensive fortresses dating to the 10th century was at Satu Mare (Castrum Zotmar), as mentioned in the Gesta Hungarorum.The average annual temperature is 9.6 °C (49 °F), or broken down by seasons: Spring 10.2 °C (50 °F), Summer 19.6 °C (67 °F), Autumn 10.8 °C (51 °F) and Winter 1.7 °C (35 °F). Prevailing wind currents blow in from the northwest, bringing spring and summer rainfall.Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round.Satmer) is a city with a population of 102,400 (2011) and the capital of Satu Mare County, Romania, as well as the center of the Satu Mare metropolitan area.Mentioned in the Gesta Hungarorum as "Castrum Zotmar", the city has a history going back to the Middle Ages.